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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Escocia' in LEOs Spanisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Escócia" – Deutsch-Portugiesisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für Escocia im Spanisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:Escocia. Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. The remoteness of the atalanta dortmund and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church. The Highlands before were very poor and traditional, casino tragamonedas gratis coyote moon were not much affected by the uplift of the Scottish Hack huuuge casino or the Industrial Revolution that was book of dead mobile the Lowlands of Scotland. Indespite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland. Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands area. Retrieved 22 December In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. In welchem Forum wollen Sie eine neue Anfrage starten? In traditional Scottish geographythe Highlands refers to that part mailand oder madrid hauptsache nicht dortmund Scotland north-west of vfb stuttgart - fortuna düsseldorf Highland Boundary Faultwhich crosses mainland Scotland in a near-straight line from Helensburgh to Stonehaven. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a escocia deutsch of seabirds such as gannets.

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Escocia, Alemania, Francia, incluso Iowa. Schottland ist er jedenfalls nicht. The Scottish Reformation achieved partial success in the Highlands.

Roman Catholicism remained strong in some areas, owing to remote locations and the efforts of Franciscan missionaries from Ireland, who regularly came to celebrate Mass.

Although the presence of Roman Catholicism has faded, there remain significant Catholic strongholds within the Highlands and Islands such as Moidart and Morar on the mainland and South Uist and Barra in the southern Outer Hebrides.

The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church.

The later 18th century saw somewhat greater success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society after the Battle of Culloden in In the 19th century, the evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly, appealing much more strongly than did the established church.

For the most part, however, the Highlands are considered predominantly Protestant, loyal to the Church of Scotland. The Outer Hebrides have been described as the last bastion of Calvinism in Britain [23] and the Sabbath remains widely observed.

Inverness and the surrounding area has a majority Protestant population, with most locals belonging to either The Kirk or the Free Church of Scotland.

The church maintains a noticeable presence within the area, with church attendance notably higher than in other Scottish cities.

Religion continues to play an important role in Highland culture, with Sabbath observance still widely practised, particularly in the Hebrides.

In traditional Scottish geography , the Highlands refers to that part of Scotland north-west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which crosses mainland Scotland in a near-straight line from Helensburgh to Stonehaven.

However the flat coastal lands that occupy parts of the counties of Nairnshire , Morayshire , Banffshire and Aberdeenshire are often excluded as they do not share the distinctive geographical and cultural features of the rest of the Highlands.

The north-east of Caithness , as well as Orkney and Shetland , are also often excluded from the Highlands, although the Hebrides are usually included.

The Highland area, as so defined, differed from the Lowlands in language and tradition, having preserved Gaelic speech and customs centuries after the anglicisation of the latter; this led to a growing perception of a divide, with the cultural distinction between Highlander and Lowlander first noted towards the end of the 14th century.

In Aberdeenshire , the boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands is not well defined. A much wider definition of the Highlands is that used by the Scotch Whisky industry.

Highland Single Malts are produced at distilleries north of an imaginary line between Dundee and Greenock , [25] thus including all of Aberdeenshire and Angus.

Inverness is traditionally regarded as the capital of the Highlands, [26] although less so in the Highland parts of Aberdeenshire , Angus , Perthshire and Stirlingshire which look more to Aberdeen , Perth , Dundee and Stirling as their commercial centres.

Under some of the wider definitions in use, Aberdeen could be considered the largest city in the Highlands, although it does not share the recent Gaelic cultural history typical of the Highlands proper.

The Highland Council area, created as one of the local government regions of Scotland , has been a unitary council area since The council area excludes a large area of the southern and eastern Highlands, and the Western Isles , but includes Caithness.

Highlands is sometimes used, however, as a name for the council area, as in Highlands and Islands Fire and Rescue Service.

Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , is also used to refer to the area covered by the fire and rescue service. This area consists of the Highland council area and the island council areas of Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles.

Much of the Highlands area overlaps the Highlands and Islands area. An electoral region called Highlands and Islands is used in elections to the Scottish Parliament: Highlands and Islands has, however, different meanings in different contexts.

Northern , as in Northern Constabulary , refers to the same area as that covered by the fire and rescue service.

There have been trackways from the Lowlands to the Highlands since prehistoric times. Many traverse the Mounth , a spur of mountainous land that extends from the higher inland range to the North Sea slightly north of Stonehaven.

Although most of the Highlands is geographically on the British mainland, it is somewhat less accessible than the rest of Britain; thus most UK couriers categorise it separately, alongside Northern Ireland , the Isle of Man , and other offshore islands.

They thus charge additional fees for delivery to the Highlands, or exclude the area entirely. Whilst the physical remoteness from the largest population centres inevitably leads to higher transit cost, there is confusion and consternation over the scale of the fees charged and the effectiveness of their communication, [29] and the use of the word Mainland in their justification.

Since the charges are often based on postcode areas, many far less remote areas, including some which are traditionally considered part of the lowlands, are also subject to these charges.

This, however, applies only to mail items and not larger packages which are dealt with by its Parcelforce division. Or sign up in the traditional way.

Sign up Login Login. Learn English, French and other languages Reverso Localize: Some parts of the coastline consist of machair , a low-lying dune pasture land.

The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.

They lie south of a second fault line the Southern Uplands fault that runs from Girvan to Dunbar. The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic , and tends to be very changeable.

As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters but cooler, wetter summers than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador , southern Scandinavia , the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia.

The highest temperature recorded was The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea.

Tiree , in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year, [] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.

There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets. On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan , mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.

Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland.

On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll , these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland as well as moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.

The population of Scotland in the census was 5,,, the highest ever recorded. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1. Scotland has fewer than 90 inhabited islands, typically the larger and more accessible ones.

The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry. The majority of births are to unmarried women Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between and is In , there were an estimated 49, ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland, making them the largest non-White ethnic group.

English, Scots , and Scottish Gaelic. In the late twentieth century, about 25 million people outside Scotland were of Scottish descent.

In between, many Scots emigrated to the New World or other British colonies. Since it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state.

Most of the sixteen percent of Scots who profess Catholic faith [] live in Greater Glasgow and the north-west Highlands; many are descended from nineteenth-century Irish immigrants.

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion, with smaller Hindu , Buddhist , Jewish , and Sikh communities. Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh since The UK Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act , including UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.

It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax , [] but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of and The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to the UK Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue.

The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the UK.

For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK.

MSPs serve for a four-year period exceptionally five years from — The Parliament nominates one of its Members, who is then appointed by the Monarch to serve as First Minister.

Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government. Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies.

In the general election , the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats. The next United Kingdom general election is scheduled for 5 May Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter, [] the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland.

McConnell, speaking at the end, highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step towards "Scotland regaining its international identity".

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. A previous Labour leader.

John Smith , described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people". The new government established a " National Conversation " on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism , or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.

In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.

Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat. Historical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom , stewartry , earldom , burgh , parish , county and regions and districts.

Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose.

In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since , [] whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services.

Decisions are made by councillors who are elected at local elections every five years. The head of each council is usually the Lord Provost alongside the Leader of the Council, [] with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council area.

In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies. Until , the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.

City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law , [] combining features of both uncodified civil law , dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis , and common law with medieval sources.

The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.

Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the s. Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: The supreme civil court is the Court of Session , although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom or before 1 October , the House of Lords.

The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases.

There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from to The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.

For three centuries the Scots legal system was unique for being the only national legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in , which legislates for Scotland.

Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice — see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy Scotland Act Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts.

Manslaughter , in England and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland.

Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.

Prior to , the Highlands and Islands Medical Service provided state-funded medical care to people in the Highlands and Islands. In , the NHS in Scotland had around , staff including more than 47, nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3, consultants.

There are also more than 12, doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances.

Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries.

Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the s, especially in the north-east of Scotland.

In February , the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending.

In the final quarter of , the Scottish economy contracted by 0. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in , but fell to 37th in , following damage to its reputation, [] and in was ranked 56th out of Although Scotland has a long military tradition predating its union with England, []: More than 4, Scots serve in the British Army around the world.

A single front-line Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland. RAF Lossiemouth , located in Moray , is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments. The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.

Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years P1—P7 ; children in Scotland study Standard Grades , or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence.

The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access , Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications.

There are fifteen Scottish universities , some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years.

A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe , a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe called the chanter , which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag.

Bagpipe bands , featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world.

Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature.

Barrie and George MacDonald. The image of St. Andrew , martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William I.

Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland , [] Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.

Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern.

Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland , a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation , the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom.

Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. Scotland has a number of production companies which produce films and television programmes for Scottish, UK and international audiences.

Distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games , curling and shinty.

Golf in Scotland is cheaper and more widely played than in other countries. The Scottish Football Association SFA , the second-oldest national football association in the world, is the main governing body for football in Scotland.

Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have also reached and lost European finals, the most recent of these being in Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands , Orkney , Shetland and the Western Isles , which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations.

There are currently two Scottish-based airlines: Hebridean Air Services and Loganair. Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while Transport Scotland retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.

The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland , while the remainder of the road network is managed by local authorities.

Bus transport was privatized in the s. Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne.

Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland.

Additional routes are operated by local authorities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Scotland disambiguation. Various Predominantly " Flower of Scotland ". Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. Saint Andrew Saint Columba.

Prehistory of Scotland and Scotland during the Roman Empire. Timeline of prehistoric Scotland. Scotland in the early modern period.

Scotland in the modern era. Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland. Languages of Scotland , Religion in Scotland , and Scottish people. This section needs to be updated.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Scottish art and Media of Scotland. Scottish people and National symbols of Scotland.

Nuclear power in Scotland and Renewable energy in Scotland. Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 13 September

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