Deutsch-Englisch-Übersetzung für "age of consent" ▷ 1 passende Übersetzungen ✓ 0 alternative Vorschläge für "age of consent" ✓ Mit Satzbeispielen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „legal age of consent“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Please note, female is below the legal age of consent. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für age of consent im Online-Wörterbuch dict. cc (Deutschwörterbuch).
The ages of consent are currently set between 14 and The vast majority of countries set their ages in the range of 14 to 16; only four countries, Cyprus 17 , Ireland 17 , Turkey 18 and Vatican City 18 , do not fit into this pattern.
The laws can also stipulate the specific activities that are permitted or differentially specify the age at which a given sex can participate.
Below is a discussion of the various laws dealing with this subject. The highlighted age is that at which, or above which, an individual can engage in unfettered sexual relations with another who is also at or above that age.
In , the self-declared state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus lifted the ban on sodomy , decriminalizing homosexual sex.
The below is a list of all jurisdictions in Europe as listed in List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe.
Neither the European Union nor the Council of Europe have suggested any specific age of consent, and there has not been any effort so far to standardize the age across member states.
However, most countries in Europe now have binding legal obligations in regard to the sexual abuse of children under The Lanzarote Convention ,  which came into effect in , obligates the countries that ratify it to criminalize certain acts concerning children under 18, such as the involvement of such children in prostitution and pornography.
Other acts that must be criminalized include:. The age of consent is called "the legal age for sexual activities" and must be chosen by states at the age they see fit.
No specific age is recommended. As of September , the convention has been ratified by 44 states, while another 3 states have signed but not yet ratified the convention.
Since , the age of consent in Albania is 14 , regardless of gender and sexual orientation. The age of consent in Andorra is 14 , as specified by Article of the penal code, which reads: As specified by Articles and , it is illegal - regardless of age - for a person occupying a position of authority or superiority over a person to engage in sexual activity with them, or when it involves the abuse of trust or situation of need or dependence.
The penalty is more severe when the subject is below the age of Sexual intercourse or other sexual acts with a person obviously under 16 , by a person who reached 18 years of age, in the absence of elements of crime envisaged in Articles , or of this Code, is punished with correctional labor for the term of up to 2 years, or with imprisonment for the term of up to 2 years.
The general age of consent in Austria is 14 , as specified by Section  of the penal code. Paragraph 4 of Section defines a close-in-age exception of maximum three years.
However , Section b  of the penal code contains an exception to the general age of consent: The Austrian Criminal Code previously specified 18 as the age of consent for male homosexual sex in which the other partner was aged 14—18, while no equivalent provision existed for heterosexual sexual conduct; this was Section of the Criminal Code.
In November , an amendment was put before the Austrian Parliament to remove Section ; but the vote ended in a draw, and the amendment failed to pass.
In July , a similar amendment was put forward; it was voted down by the conservative majority. Section came into force when homosexuality between males became legal in The Section was later repealed on 14 August Sexual intercourse with the person below the age of 16 years , as well as the same offences linked with satisfaction of sexual passion in perverted forms shall be punished by imprisonment up to 3 years.
The age of consent in Belarus is 16 , as specified by Articles and , which read: The Belgian Criminal Code previously specified an age of consent of 18 for homosexual sex.
This provision - Article bis - was added in and repealed in Sexual activity with children younger than 14 is illegal under Article , which prohibits sexual acts with a "child", and a "child" is defined in Article 2 8 as a person under However , Article mentions a "juvenile" who is defined in Article 2 9 as a person under 18 , although it is not clear if this article refers only to sexual acts performed in view of a minor under 18 or if it can be used also to punish sexual acts performed with the minor: The age of consent in Bulgaria is 14 , as specified by Articles and 1.
However Article 2 has a provision for those who are over 14 and do " not understand the characteristics or the importance of the act.
The age of consent for all sexual conduct in Croatia under the new Criminal Code in force since 1 January is 15 , regardless of sexual orientation or gender, regulated by Article Before the year , the legal age of consent in Croatia was Age of consent was equalised in The age of consent for all sexual conduct in Cyprus under the Criminal Code is 17 , regardless of sexual orientation or gender.
Until , homosexual acts between men were entirely forbidden under Section In , the Court held that the prohibition of homosexual acts was a violation of Article 8.
In January , the Cypriot Government introduced a Bill in the Cypriot Parliament that would have abolished the ban. In May , again a government measure to repeal the ban failed because of the strength of the opposition.
In April , the Council of Europe set a deadline for compliance of 29 May and on 21 May , the House of Representatives voted 36 to 8 in favour legalising homosexual acts.
However it was set at 18 while heterosexual acts remained at In , under pressure from the EU  the parliament finally ended the disparate provisions and changed the age of consent to 17 for both heterosexual and homosexual acts, under the revised Criminal Code.
For both of these Sovereign Base Areas British military enclaves on the island of Cyprus, the age of consent is The age of consent in the Czech Republic is The Austrian Penal Code was not replaced in Czechoslovakia before Both changes were criticized.
Until , homosexual sexual intercourse was illegal in Czechoslovakia. Between adults, payment receipt or provision and public nuisance were reasons for criminalization.
The age of consent in the Kingdom of Denmark is 15  as specified by Section In determining the penalty, it shall be an aggravating circumstance if the perpetrator has gained intercourse by exploiting his physical or mental superiority.
Section , part 1, reads: The laws in the Faroe Islands and Greenland are equivalent although regulated in separate penal codes for these autonomous countries.
Male homosexual acts were legalised in Denmark lesbianism was never illegal with an age of consent set at 18, after a major reform of the Penal Code in ; At the same time, the age of consent for heterosexual acts was raised from 12 to In , the age of consent was harmonized at 15 for all acts [ citation needed ].
Sex with a child under the age of 12 results in double punishment, and sex with a minor under 18 is illegal for a person in charge of this child.
Until , "acts against nature" [anal intercourse] were punishable with the stakes. However, until the late 18th century the rule was never used, and, when it came into rule, the convicts were always pardoned to 7 years in jail.
In , Denmark became the first country to legalise pictorial pornography ,  but this did not affect laws related to the age of people participating in its production.
Consequently, the legal age of consent 15 equaled the limit for pornography produced within the country, but material produced in other countries where the Danish consent law does not apply was not covered and therefore legal.
The age of consent in Estonia is 14 , as specified by Section sexual intercourse with a child , which reads: Section defines rape as " Sexual intercourse with a person against his or her will by using force or taking advantage of a situation in which the person is not capable of initiating resistance or comprehending the situation "; and Section reads:.
When regaining independence from USSR in , the age of consent for male homosexual intercourse was set at 16, whereas the age for heterosexual intercourse was The age of consent was harmonized in when the law was amended, specifying an age of 14 for sexual intercourse.
The age of consent in Finland is 16 , as specified by Section 6 1 Sexual abuse of a child , which reads: The sexual act may not be punishable if "there is no great difference in the ages or the mental and physical maturity of the persons involved".
The age is 18 when in connection with a person who has some formal power over the young person, like a school teacher. Until , homosexual acts were prohibited.
After decriminalisation, the age of consent was set to 18 for homosexual acts and 16 for heterosexual acts. The age of consent is therefore The age of consent in France is 15 , as specified by Article of the Penal Code, which reads: Article prohibits the "organisation by an adult of meetings involving indecent exposure or sexual relations knowing that minors are present or participating".
Minors refers to under 18s; the text of the article can be subject to interpretation. Article prohibits the "soliciting of a minor under the age of fifteen, or a person pretending to be such minor, for sexual purposes through the use of a computer system".
Male homosexual acts were illegal until , when the ancient sodomy laws were dropped from the Criminal Code of that year. This continued to be the case under the Napoleonic Code of The age of consent was set at 11 in and at 13 in In , the age of consent for homosexual acts was set at 21, while for heterosexual acts it was still The latter was increased to 15 in In , the age for homosexual acts was lowered to In , it was lowered to 15, in line with that for heterosexual acts.
Otherwise the age of consent is 16, although provisions protecting minors against abuse apply until the age of 18 under Section 1: This is specified by Sections Sexual abuse of children and Sexual abuse of youths of the Penal Code, which read:.
The current rules for age of consent in Germany were set following a post-reunification penal law reform in The ages of 14 and 16 had been relevant since the Criminal Code for the German Empire came into force in In West Germany the latter rule was kept, with minor changes in Unblemishedness was no longer required, and the court could refrain from punishment if the offender was under 21 years of age.
The German Democratic Republic , by contrast, created a new socialist criminal code in Female homosexuality was not prosecuted. In West Germany, male homosexuality was legalized in The age of consent was set to 21 years and reduced to 18 years in Only men of 18 or older could be offenders and courts could refrain from punishment if the offender was not yet In East Germany, the criminal code was supplemented in by a provision that allowed the waiving of prosecution if no harm had been done to socialist society by the unlawful act.
In the GDR supreme court ruled homosexuality was a variant of sexual behaviour just as heterosexuality. West German law makers also saw the need for gender- and sexual-orientation-neutrality, and for rebalancing sexual self-determination with the protection of minors.
In general, the need for a complaint from the former West German law was kept, but in the case of special public interest, the offence was made prosecutable ex officio, as had been the case in East German law.
The age of consent in Greece is The general provision for age of consent in Greece is 15 as specified by Article , as well as Articles , B of the Greek Penal Code.
In , along with the legalization of same-sex civil unions , Article which provided a further prohibition of seducing a male under 17 if the actor is a male adult was repealed , therefore equalising age of consent for homosexual acts.
There are also several other prohibitions regarding positions of authority and acts of lewdness, as specified by Articles and Furthermore, there is a close-in-age exemption of 3 years age difference for indecent acts between persons younger than The age of consent in Hungary is A close-in-age exemption allows sexual acts from age 12 if the older party is under The new criminal code in force since 1 July reads: Until homosexual acts were illegal.
After decriminalisation the age of consent for homosexual acts was 20 and remained so until From then until the age of consent for such acts was 18, as specified by Section In the Hungarian Constitutional Court repealed Section and the age of consent for homosexual acts was lowered to 14 in line with heterosexual acts.
The age of consent in Iceland is 15 , as specified by Section of the Icelandic Penal Code, which reads: The age of consent was raised from 14 to 15 in The age of consent in Ireland is 17 ,  in relation to vaginal, oral, or anal sex, and vaginal or anal penetration.
In the case of offenses with children aged 15 and 16, the relevant statute, Sexual act with child under 17 years of age , provides that "8 Where, in proceedings for an offence under this section against a child who at the time of the alleged commission of the offence had attained the age of 15 years but was under the age of 17 years, it shall be a defence that the child consented to the sexual act of which the offence consisted where the defendant— a is younger or less than 2 years older than the child, b was not, at the time of the alleged commission of the offence, a person in authority in respect of the child, and c was not, at the time of the alleged commission of the offence, in a relationship with the child that was intimidatory or exploitative of the child.
Anal sex was illegal under the Offences against the Person Act , while the Criminal Law Amendment Act criminalised "Defilement of girl between thirteen and sixteen years of age", with more severe penalties for "Defilement of girl under thirteen years of age".
The Carrigan Report into child sex abuse and underage prostitution recommended raising the age of consent to 18 years. The Criminal Law Sexual Offences Act decriminalised male homosexual acts and created offences of " Buggery of persons under 17 years of age" and " Gross indecency with males under 17 years of age".
It advised that close-in-age cases should remain criminalised, but with more lenient guidelines for sentencing. It also recommended wider publicity of the age limits.
The age of consent in Italy is 14 years, with a close-in-age exception that allows those aged 13 to engage in sexual activity with partners who are under the age of 18, provided that the age gap between them is less than 3 years.
The age of consent rises to 16 if one of the participants has some kind of influence on the other e. Not knowing that the victim is underage is not a legal defense, except when it was unavoidable ignorance.
If the minor involved is under the age of 11, the crime can be punished even without a complaint and the punishment is aggravated.
It is also illegal to perform sexual acts in the presence of a minor aged less than 14 with the intent of allowing the minor to witness the acts, even if they do not take an active part.
See also more related articles from Interpol. The age of consent in Kazakhstan is 16 , according to article of the Crime Criminal Code.
Sexual Intercourse and Other Actions of a Sexual Character with a Person Under Sixteen Years of Age Sexual intercourse, sodomy, or lesbianism or other acts of sexual nature, with a person who did not reach sixteen years of age , the guilty party being aware of that fact, shall be punished by restriction of freedom for a period up to three years, or by detention under arrest for a period up to six months, or deprivation of freedom for a period up to five years.
The age of consent in Kosovo is Sections and provide harsher penalties for rape and forcible sexual assault of juveniles. Until , male homosexual acts were illegal under Section This provision was repealed by the Latvian Parliament in and the age of consent for male homosexual acts was set at In , the Latvian Parliament adopted a new Criminal Code that contained a complex system of sexual offences: In , the law was amended to clarify the situation and confirm that the age of consent was 16 for all acts only a person aged 18 or older can be punished for having sex with a 14—15 year old.
The age of consent in Liechtenstein is Sexual activity with 14—15 year olds is generally legal, but it can still be punished if sexual access to these children has been obtained by exploiting their lack of sexual self-determination.
The age of consent 14 was not set directly in this article of the Lithuanian criminal code, though. It has been established by the Lithuanian case law.
This meant that both heterosexual and homosexual acts were allowed once a child had reached the age of 14 [ citation needed ]. There was and remains an exception to this rule: Until , male homosexual acts were prohibited under the Lithuanian Criminal Code, Article , which was repealed in that year.
The new law set an age of consent of 17 for male oral and anal intercourse, 16 for other male homosexual acts, and 14 for lesbian and heterosexual acts.
In , the law was amended to equalise the age of consent at 14 for all sexual acts; the age of consent was raised to 16 in , regardless of gender and sexual orientation.
Judge warns over pictures of unders. This wide-ranging discussion explores the contradicting cultural and legal concepts surrounding the idea of the age of consent for sex, with special focus on how consent is related to the juridical and social construction of the child, the sex offender, and the homosexual.
Sex and Harm in the Age of Consent. The court also heard Johnson googled the legal age of consent four days after his alleged encounter with the girl.
Star told mum of his baby: The age of consent in Northern Ireland is 16, however children under 13 are protected by specific laws because they cannot legally give their consent to any form of sexual activity.
Care worker is cleared of misconduct. In the 12th century, Gratian , the influential founder of canon law in medieval Europe, accepted the age of puberty for marriage to be around twelve for girls and around fourteen for boys but acknowledged consent to be meaningful if both children were older than seven years of age.
Marriage would then be valid as long as neither of the two parties annulled the marital agreement before reaching puberty, or if they had already consummated the marriage.
The first recorded age-of-consent law dates from in England; as part of its provisions on rape, the Statute of Westminster made it a misdemeanor to "ravish" a "maiden within age," whether with or without her consent.
The phrase "within age" was later interpreted by jurist Sir Edward Coke England, 17th century as meaning the age of marriage, which at the time was twelve years of age.
The American colonies followed the English tradition, and the law was more of a guide. In the 16th century, a small number of Italian and German states set the minimum age for sexual intercourse for girls, setting it at twelve years.
Towards the end of the 18th century, other European countries also began to enact similar laws. The first French Constitution of established the minimum age at eleven years.
Portugal, Spain, Denmark and the Swiss cantons initially set the minimum age at ten to twelve years. Age of consent laws were, historically, difficult to follow and enforce: In Christian societies, sex outside marriage was forbidden.
Older children were themselves often punished for being complicit in sexual interaction with an adult. By the midth century there was increased concern over child sexual abuse.
A general shift in social and legal attitudes toward issues of sex occurred during the modern era. Attitudes on the appropriate age of permission for females to engage in sexual activity drifted toward adulthood.
While ages from ten to thirteen years were typically regarded as acceptable ages for sexual consent in Western countries during the midth century,  by the end of the 19th century changing attitudes towards sexuality and childhood resulted in the raising of the age of consent.
English common law had traditionally set the age of consent within the range of ten to twelve years old, but the Offences Against the Person Act raised this to thirteen in Great Britain and Ireland.
Early feminists of the Social Purity movement , such as Josephine Butler and others, instrumental in securing the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts , began to turn towards the problem of child prostitution by the end of the s.
Sensational media revelations about the scourge of child prostitution in London in the s then caused outrage among the respectable middle-classes, leading to pressure for the age of consent to be raised again.
The investigative journalist William Thomas Stead of the Pall Mall Gazette was pivotal in exposing the problem of child prostitution in the London underworld through a publicity stunt.
In he "purchased" one victim, Eliza Armstrong , the thirteen-year-old daughter of a chimney sweep , for five pounds and took her to a brothel where she was drugged.
The "Maiden Tribute" was an instant sensation with the reading public, and Victorian society was thrown into an uproar about prostitution.
Fearing riots on a national scale, the Home Secretary , Sir William Harcourt , pleaded in vain with Stead to cease publication of the articles.
A wide variety of reform groups held protest meetings and marched together to Hyde Park demanding that the age of consent be raised.
The government was forced to propose the Criminal Law Amendment Act , which raised the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen and clamped down on prostitution.
In the United States, as late as the s most states set the minimum age at ten to twelve in Delaware, it was seven in The campaign was successful, with almost all states raising the minimum age to sixteen to eighteen years by In France , Portugal, Denmark, the Swiss cantons and other countries, the minimum age was raised to between thirteen and sixteen years in the following decades.
In France, under the Napoleonic Code , the age of consent was set in at eleven,  and was raised to thirteen in In Spain , it was set in at "puberty age", and changed to twelve in ,  which was kept until , when it became 13;   and in it was raised to In the 21st century, concerns about child sex tourism and commercial sexual exploitation of children gained international prominence, and have resulted in legislative changes in several jurisdictions, as well as in the adoption of several international instruments.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children , which came into force in , prohibits commercial sexual exploitation of children.
The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings which came into force in also deals with commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Several Western countries have raised their ages of consent recently. These include Canada in —from 14 to 16 ; and in Europe, Iceland in —from 14 to 15 , Lithuania in —from 14 to 16 , Croatia in —from 14 to 15 , and Spain in —from 13 to Sexual relations with a person under the age of consent is a crime in most countries, exceptions to this include, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia.
Jurisdictions use a variety of terms for the offense, including child sexual abuse , statutory rape , illegal carnal knowledge , corruption of a minor ,  besides others.
The enforcement practices of age-of-consent laws vary depending on the social sensibilities of the particular culture see above.
Often, enforcement is not exercised to the letter of the law, with legal action being taken only when a sufficiently socially-unacceptable age gap exists between the two individuals, or if the perpetrator is in a position of power over the minor e.
The threshold age for engaging in sexual activity varies between jurisdictions see above. Most jurisdictions have set a fixed age of consent.
Ages can also vary based on the type of calendar used, such as the Lunar calendar ,  how birth dates in leap years are handled, or even the method by which birth date is calculated.
A growing number of countries have specific extraterritorial legislation that prosecutes their citizens in their homeland should they engage in illicit sexual conduct in a foreign country with children.
This applies in cases where any of the partners travels into or out of the United States, or from one state into another, for the purpose of an illegal sexual encounter.
There is debate as to whether the gender of those involved should lead to different treatment of the sexual encounter, in law or in practice. Traditionally, age of consent laws regarding vaginal intercourse were often meant to protect the chastity of unmarried girls.
This has led to gender-neutral laws in many jurisdictions. In the US, in Michael M. Traditionally, many age of consent laws dealt primarily with men engaging in sexual acts with underage girls and boys the latter acts often falling under sodomy and buggery laws.
This means that in some legal systems, issues of women having sexual contact with underage partners were rarely acknowledged. For example, until , in the UK, before the Sexual Offences Amendment Act , there was no statutory age of consent for lesbian sex.
The age at which a person can be legally married can differ from the age of consent. In jurisdictions where the marriageable age is lower than the age of consent, those laws usually override the age of consent laws in the case of a married couple where one or both partners are below the age of consent.
Some jurisdictions prohibit all sex outside of marriage irrespective of age, as in the case of Yemen.
In many countries, there are specific laws dealing with child prostitution. In some countries, states, or other jurisdictions, the age of consent may be lower than the age at which a person can appear in pornographic images and films.
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